The Pre-Columbian Americas
Fox Mulder

While we were all taught as young laddies in school that it was in 1492 that Columbus sailed the ocean blue, the true and actual history of exactly how the American continents came to be discovered and populated remains severely more complicated.

This isn’t to take anything away from Columbus’ accomplishments, as it is certainly true that his achievement remains valid with regards to altering the course of history and opening civilization’s eyes as to just how much the world we live in contains, we are however still charged with uncovering the real truths behind the exact points in history that humans ‘discovered‘ the Americas and also the mechanisms by which these discoveries occurred.

Indeed it’s an unarguable fact that most people in the known world before Columbus’ first voyage to the Americas neither had any idea that there were entire continents on Earth yet to be discovered, nor would perhaps even believe that the world was round. Common belief in those days was either that the world was flat, or that the circumference of the earth was simply too great to sail around westward to reach Asia. Not only that, but with the Spanish Inquisition going strong at the time of Columbus’ proposal to Queen Isabella I, he was literally putting his life on the line by not only suggesting such an outlandish concept as sailing west to the Indies, but also requesting that Spain fund the voyage as well.

Contrary to today’s absurd and idiotic flat-Earther trend, SOME humans have known for thousands of years that the Earth was round. Unfortunately, ‘some people knowing’ does not mean that most people have been aware throughout history – remember these are the days before the inter-connectivity existed that we now enjoy as a result of the internet.

Eratosthenes of Cyrene

The ancient Greek polymath Eratosthenes is known to have not only surmised that the Earth is round, but also to have nearly exactly calculated its circumference – and this was over two-thousand years ago! How did he manage this feat without the benefit of modern technology, the same technology that current flat-Earthers ignore?

This man was astute enough to realize that if obelisks in the southern part of Egypt showed no shadows at noon, and if a deep well in that area was perfectly lit at its bottom, then due to Earth’s flatness, obelisks (or any vertical object) near Alexandria should cast no shadows either. Earth’s roundness however denied this possibility, and Eratosthenes was intelligent enough to realize that since these objects further north cast shadows at high noon, this must mean that the Earth was round. He then set about to measure the degree of the shadows and through trigonometry calculate the curvature of the Earth – and therefore also a close approximation of its circumference (thrown off just a bit since the Earth is a slightly flattened spheroid rather than a perfect sphere).

So it was settled before the time of Christ then…the Earth was/is round…only however to those who were learned enough to understand this logic and also actually hear about Eratosthenes’ findings in the first place (no internet). Then of course there was also the fall of the classical civilizations and the dark ages and so on, so fast forward to the 1490’s and things were somewhat back to where we started, a lot of people only believed what they could see and education was not necessarily abounding, regardless of the fact that several Muslims had by then also effectively calculated the circumference of the earth and therefore ‘proved’ its roundness.

Columbus used as much of this scholarly evidence as he could – sometimes tailored to meet his own goals (understating the circumference) – when pleading his case to several monarchs only to be rejected time and again until Spain finally saw fit to wager the cost of a voyage against the potential windfall that could result for the crown were he to prove successful. The rest is history. On the 12th of October, 1492, Columbus landed on the island he christened ‘San Salvador’ – now part of The Bahamas – ten long weeks after departing Palos de la Frontera, Spain, and thus began the systematic exploitation of the Americas by Spain and later Portugal which resulted in untold measures of devastation to the indigenous peoples over hundreds of years (and which some would argue is still occurring).

We’re all well aware of what happened after 1492, with various colonial powers in Europe subsequently carving up pieces of the Americas as their own and warring over them until the manifest destiny of The United States was achieved as well as Mexican independence from Spain, and the list goes on…but what about the history of the Americas before 1492? This is where things get somewhat tumultuous among scholars as different theories continue to compete for legitimacy.

It may have taken a while, but the discovery of the remains of a Norse settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland in 1960 finally proved that Viking explorers had indeed reached North America as part of living their sagas, and that they had done so somewhere around the year 1000 AD – potentially even a clean five hundred years prior to Columbus’ first voyage. Why was this not already understood well before Columbus’ time? One explanation is that the Norse just didn’t think much of it, perhaps not enough at least to put any effort into ensuring that this information was conveyed to other, non-Norse peoples. The Norse did what they were used to doing about these things, it was included into their sagas and nothing more was really thought of it over time.

Another potential reason is that they may have wanted to keep these new waters to themselves rather than soon have other countries coming in to compete for fishing areas. One thing is certain, if you look at it from the Norse point of view, this discovery didn’t to them have the same meaning as it ended up having for Columbus. From a northern perspective this was just another coast in addition to Greenland’s, Iceland’s, and Scotland’s which were in the same general area to the Norse. They most probably didn’t for instance, travel southward enough to understand the sheer scale of the American continents, nor were they particularly inclined to do so. Keep in mind that L’Anse aux Meadows was starting to get far enough to be slightly more inconvenient to travel to as compared to some of their closer territorial areas.

One thing becoming slightly different however as the Norse traveled westwards, was the presence of what they called “skrælings”, basically the indigenous peoples already living in these areas when the Norse arrived, and what would later become known as Native Americans in the case of those encountered in Newfoundland. The exact meaning of this word as it was used at the time is debated but it’s thought to range from “barbarian” to “weakling”, or perhaps it was even used to describe these people’s clothing, skin, or behavior. Regardless of what the Norse thought of them however, the fact is that they were already living in these arctic areas by the time the Norse arrived, which begs the question…from where and when did THEY come?

This question has no easy answer, especially if one were looking to know about the exact peoples encountered by those Viking voyages considering that there have been a number of different groups that have lived in the area from time to time over the centuries including the Thule, Dorset, Inuit, and others. The precise time ranges for which each of these cultures thrived and when they collapsed (and why) aren’t clear, but what is clear is that the pre-Columbian history of the Americas is long and rich at the very least.

Just like things used to be as simple as “Columbus discovered America“, which we now know to not quite be the case, the initial human population of America is also becoming more complicated as time goes on. What used to be the consensus was that the first people to inhabit the Americas (and only people, until European contact) walked across land connecting Asia and North America that was then exposed due to lower sea levels as a result of more water being tied up in ice at the time. While either this and/or a coastal migration along a similar route is generally accepted to have occurred – due both to archaeological and DNA evidence – the question remains, was this the only way humans arrived to the new world?

Evidence continues to mount that the historical human migration to the Americas might just be more complicated than that single theory alone accounts for. One category of evidence supports potential pre-Columbian and pre-Norse European contact with North America as outlined in the ‘Solutrean Hypothesis’. Certain stone tools found in the Eastern United States and just off of its East Coast appear to be some of the oldest artifacts yet discovered in the Americas, potentially conflicting with the time tables of when people were crossing over from Asia. Not only that, but the artifacts in question show a style of stone-age technology that not only strikingly resembles artifacts discovered in western European locations such as France and Spain, but that also pre-date by thousands of years their usage by known Native American cultures such as the Clovis.

Left: Solutrean artifacts from France
Right: Stone artifact recovered from the Chesapeake bay along with a 22k year-old Mastadon skull

The Clovis had been traditionally thought of as the oldest peoples to inhabit the Americas as a solidified culture, however sites such as the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, Cactus Hill in Virginia, Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas, and Page-Ladson in Florida – among others – all point to a pre-Clovis presence of humans in North America – sometimes by thousands of years. The existence of this older evidence largely concentrated along the eastern coast of The United States, along with the similarities with European Solutrean artifacts suggests that there may have been human contact with North America up to twenty-two thousand years ago or more and that these people may very well have been some of, or potentially the first humans to set foot onto the continent.

The Beringia migration from Asia makes sense enough and remains undisputed, but how could Europeans have gotten to America in pre-history without a similarly exposed land bridge? Evidence shows that during the time of the Solutreans the seasonal presence of the northern ice cap in the Atlantic reached as far south as France, and continued all the way across the ocean to North America. The ice wasn’t constant year-round, but that may have actually contributed to the Solutreans getting westward…

Just as the ice would have started to recede with the approach of warmer spring temperatures, it also would have moved in a western-flowing direction due to currents caused by the melting itself. Solutreans would not necessarily have intended to make the trip across the Atlantic, but after going a certain distance in search of food that the ice would have provided (seals, etc), they may have accidentally gotten caught up in the melting pack ice currents and eventually been deposited near or onto the East Coast of North America. This is a plausible explanation for how they got across the ocean, and also provides many opportunities for such an event as each year would’ve provided for that scenario.

Such phenomenon of accidentally crossing an ocean is actually not unheard of, strong sea currents can very well result in boats travelling thousands of miles off course and to unintended destinations. There are several known examples in the Pacific of Japanese seafarers being blown off course and then carried by the Kuroshio Current all the way to the the West Coast of North America – some as far south as California. This has happened literally dozens of times that we know of and probably happened countless times over past millennia as well.

In addition to the several known and documented cases where Japanese sailors have inadvertently made it to North America, there are also other types of potential evidence of this contact historically. Examples such as similarities in pottery between the Ecuadorian Valdivia culture and their Jōmon counterparts in Japan at the time, as well as peculiar differences between the Zuni tribe of New Mexico and their neighbors regarding linguistic characteristics and religious beliefs (seeming to potentially have been caused by Japanese influence) add to the probability that Pacific pre-Colombian contact – while not widely known about or understood – is gaining in the probability of having occurred. This appears to support a similar possibility/probability with regards to the same having happened with pre-Colombian Europeans such as the Solutreans.

A small Japanese merchant vessel, the Hojunmaru – most likely similar to this – left Onoura bound for Edo in late 1832 but instead arrived with three survivors in Cape Flattery in 1834 in what was later to be Washington State

Evidence of pre-Columbian migration to or contact with the Americas continues into South America and perhaps is even more convincing. The Pedra Furada sites in Brazil suggest evidence of human habitation going as far back as twenty-two thousand years or further depending on the interpretation of certain artifacts and charcoal dating. These spans of time are well before most ranges theorized for Beringian crossings to North America – not to mention the time it would then take for humans to migrate as far south as Brazil etc.

Some South American evidence is less about human remains or tools, but instead relies on the presence of some of the the same plants or animals in both South America and locations in Oceania. It’s fact that humans found ways to populate the thousands of islands strewn across the vast expanses of the Pacific Ocean. Ancient techniques of reading the ocean currents and wave patterns along with navigation using the stars allowed Micronesians, Melanesians, and Polynesians to travel thousands of miles and eventually populate islands as remote as Hawaiʻi and Rapa Nui (Easter Island). In the case of Rapa Nui, it doesn’t take much imagination to envision that if humans could get from Asia to eventually as far as Easter Island, then it would seem logical that they could also get to the coast of Chile.

Pacific Islanders even made maps signifying ocean swell currents and the locations of islands which affected those currents; tools like this allowed predictable and accurate travel by boat across hundreds and thousands of miles of open water
The distances covered by pacific islanders is absolutely astonishing, and it would make little sense for them to have stopped at Easter Island and gone no further east

One piece of evidence supporting intermingling between Pacific Islanders and South Amerindians is the sweet potato. It is known and has been genetically proven that the sweet potato is native to South America, however by the time European sailors arrived in the Pacific, the sweet potato was already present across the region. Phylogenetic evidence supports at least two introductions of the sweet potato to Oceania with the first potentially as far back as 700 AD. It’s unclear exactly how this happened but the edible evidence doesn’t stop there. Chicken bones found in Chile dating to the late 1300’s at the latest show through DNA analysis to be related to chickens from Southeast Asia and islands in the Pacific. Chickens were not thought to exist at all in the Americas before Columbus and others introduced European varieties, therefore, how did chickens get to South America before European contact, and how is it they are related to Asian breeds if it weren’t for some sort of contact between the peoples of these regions?

Evidence upending traditional theories on how the Americas were initially populated as well as evidence supporting various pre-Columbian contact between settlers of the Americas and Asian, European, or other peoples later in the timeline continues to mount and isn’t confined to only just what’s been mentioned here but spans other categories such as lingual similarities and artifacts whose presence remains as yet unexplained. Research will continue and we’ll no doubt also continue to discover new archaeological finds which in some cases may answer questions, and in other cases raise even more, but one thing remains certain…we must continue to search for the truth.

Clues of our Human Ancestry
Fox Mulder

In yet another example of the sophistication exhibited by some prehistoric peoples, a stone bracelet discovered in the famed Denisovan cave in Siberia has yielded evidence that the artist who created it so many thousands of years ago used methods that weren’t thought to have existed at the time of its manufacture, and moreover, that may even rival modern techniques as well. How is it that certain ancient people were able to exhibit skill levels not seen again for tens of thousands of years? Why has the evolution of mankind not been linear, but instead has seen a myriad of ups and downs regarding apparent intelligence and technical achievements?

“…The ancient master was skilled in techniques previously considered not characteristic for the Paleolithic era, such as drilling with an implement, boring tool type rasp, grinding and polishing with a leather and skins of varying degrees of tanning…[sic]”

It’s well known that all humans alive today are labeled as Homo Sapiens, however what are ignored are some of the other prototypical hominins that also contributed to our makeup over the millennia.

Case in point, until very recently it was widely thought that Neanderthals were some sort of isolated and separate offshoot of hominin which had little to no relation to modern man. Today however – through fairly recently uncovered genetic evidence – it’s understood that Homo Sapiens not only interbred with Neanderthals at certain points in history, but that some modern human racial differences can most likely be directly attributed to that interbreeding. This is evidenced by the presence of traces of Neanderthal DNA in all humans outside of Africa while Africans posses none.

One does need to ask oneself, why do Caucasians, Africans, Asians, and other ethnicities differ so widely in appearance and behavior? While it IS true that nearly all life on earth is heavily related to all other life…what caused these observable and stark differences in our own species? The genetic history resulting from multiple out-of-Africa migrations is starting to shed light on potential answers to this question.

If judging by genetic proportions alone, humans are closely related to pigs…and also starfish even…the list goes on, and especially with mammals it cannot be denied. When was the last time you looked into your cat or dog’s eyes and didn’t see a glimpse of human emotion in that very-similar face of two eyes, a nose, and a mouth, with not widely diverging proportions as related to yourself?

It is no secret that all life on Earth is inter-related and traces back to having evolved from the same primordial sources. This doesn’t however remove the need for us to study and determine exactly who we are as people and how our human species evolved to be like it is. If anything, our close relation to all other terrestrial life begs the question “what makes us different”?

In order to truly understand ourselves and what separates us from other life on earth we must understand exactly how we evolved, all of the steps that forged that process, and therefore also know which of those steps resulted in the wide array of differences that exist among modern human races today.

Thanks to the modern study of DNA evidence combined with archaeological finds it is becoming clear that there was not a single migration out of Africa, but instead several, and also at least several different species of early human. Neanderthals have been known about for some time however we’ve only recently discovered the previous existence of other early hominins such as Denisovans, Homo Luzonensis, Homo Naledi, and Homo Floresiensis. Indeed our heritage is starting to become quite a bit more complex than was theorized by scientists even just one hundred years ago, and it’s almost certain that we will continue to find even more early human species as time goes on.

Given that we now know that there were at least several different early hominins – and more to come as scientists are now suggesting that Denisovans and Neanderthals both interbred with at least one other as yet unknown species of early human – this is starting to shed light on how modern humans can have such varying differences across our different ethnicities.

Modern humans today are basically the result of an extremely complex evolution of several different lineages that interbred at different points in history, to varying degrees, and also across a vast number of geographical locations, WITH each lineage evolving over the millennia as all of this transpired.

NOW it is starting to make sense just as to how and why different human races and cultures across the globe can look and act so wildly differently from each other. Regardless of the overall genetic similarities that exist across all terrestrial life, when one focuses on humans alone, the history of our race is very rich with different twists and turns over time that have resulted in the diverse species that we today call modern man.

The Confusing History of Prehistory
Fox Mulder

Thanks to the painstaking research efforts by archaeologists and various other scientists over the past several decades, humans are now finally starting to construct a real picture of how our ancestors may have lived, died, and even interbred over the course of millennia. While these efforts serve to invaluably educate our species on its pedigree, they also fall far short of painting a picture of clarity and instead are providing a heavily granulated mosaic.

The Denisova Cave in Altai Krai, Russia

Due to its location, the Denisova Cave in the Bashelaksky Mountain Range of the Siberian region of Russia has an average year round temperate of just 32°F. Scientists are finding that this particular cave was once home to many of our ancestors and has basically become a cold storage for human and humanoid-produced artifacts (and remains) for the periods of time in which it has been left uninhabited and dormant.

First noticed to have significant archaeological value in the 1970’s, this cave has since yielded a treasure trove of absolutely priceless artifacts that give us a window back into history allowing us to see the work of early humanoid artists whose talent now echoes throughout time. Some of the most impressive pieces have impossibly small holes drilled into them which must have required a level of skill unparalleled for vast swaths of history considering the prehistorical tools available at the time.

Prehistorical artifacts from the Denisova Cave

When people speak of history they can usually get some sort of an idea of the time frames in question by comparing to their own experiences in life. If something occurred fifty years ago for instance they might picture what it’s like to live ten years of their life (then multiply that by five) whilst cross-referencing that to what they know occurs in the span of fifty years of recorded history. This is enough time for someone to be born and grow old, for business empires to rise and fall, and for technological advances to change our standards of living. What people can’t understand however is when we start to talk about the spans of time required in order to map out the history of the Denisova Cave. What we are talking about here are millennia, and once the conversation gets to that point, we need to try extremely hard to truly understand the subject material.

According to some of the latest research, this cave has a history of humanoid occupation dating to nearly as long as 300,000 years. This is insane. What makes it even more curious is that it isn’t the remains of modern humans that are the most exciting and perplexing (although they are present as well) but rather the remains of not one, but two early humanoid species also found in the cave – with most probably at least some eras of overlapping use. What this means is that multiple species most likely shared this cave together and just about certainly interbred while doing so.

Since we were first able to look up at the stars at night we’ve wondered from whence we came and with every passing year and development of technological advance we step teasingly closer to the answers that we seek. This never-ending “march of time”-like progression is something that we rely on to eventually fully enlighten us, and it helps us to sleep better at night thinking that eventually we’ll figure everything out and have all of the answers.

The Denisova Cave is one of the double-edged swords of these advances in our understanding because it has raised at least as many questions as it has answered about our history – not only just what happened and when but also, who ARE we? The typical historical narrative suggests that we are modern homo sapiens that migrated out of Africa some time after some of our earlier humanoid brethren had already done so, and after some contact with them or not, we were the only ones to survive to present day with the rest falling into history after becoming extinct for one reason or another. This story is nice and neat and sets modern humans up on some pedestal as having survived as a result of either being more highly evolved, intelligent, adaptable, fierce, or all of the above.

Excavations in the Denisova Cave

As archaeologists continue to dig up, sift through, study, and date the artifacts uncovered, it is increasingly looking like the humanoid species Neanderthal and Denisovan co-occupied this cave for millennia at a time, and this is not just one or two thousand years, but more like 96,000 years of co-habitation! This is where the modern human mind just cannot understand what is being said. This is such an astronomically high number of years for two humanoids species to be co-existing in the exact same place, that it is nearly impossible for them to have failed to interbreed together.

Imagine male and female humanoids living in the same cave together for forty-eight times as long as the distance in history between us today and when Jesus walked the earth. That is striking by itself, but now try to imagine them never having interbred and it becomes most obvious that they must have indeed.

Very fine artistic work of early humanoids

These implications are now actually being confirmed by scientists and are in fact, no longer just conjecture. A study in 2018 using the latest in “collagen peptide mass fingerprinting” technology has effectively proven the finding of the remains of a thirteen year old girl who was most likely the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. While these studies are certainly answering many, many questions of our history around the migrations and interactions of early humanoid species, they are diluting the clarity of the picture of exactly what other interbreeding occurred and what that means for us today.

As we listened to our instructors in class during our schooling we had a fairly clear painting of where we came from – and how – with regards to a Homo Sapien origin in Africa, followed by the great coastal migration and so on and so forth. This story was simple enough and made sense. With the latest discoveries from the Denisova Cave however, that picture is now becoming as pixelated as a low quality YouTube video to the point where it’s now nearly unwatchable.

If Neanderthals and Denisovans cross-bred, it is at the very least prudent to assume that further interbreeding occurred between Homo Sapiens as well. What does this mean? It means we are in fact NOT the same Homo Sapiens that broke out of Africa all of those years ago as we were told in our classrooms. Instead, it means that we’re something else…some hodgepodge mixture of early humanoid species crossed with those ALSO early humanoid Homo Sapiens, which altogether resulted in whatever we are today that can only be defined as “modern humans”. Maybe someday we will know who we are, but in the meantime we will keep looking to the stars and asking those questions as our historical genetic makeup continues to descend into an ever-complicated mosaic of confusion.

Missing 411 CanAm… or Just Missing 911?
Fox Mulder

If a kid gets lost in the forest with a bear to keep him company but no one else witnesses it… did the bear exist at all?

While this play on the old philosophical tree-falling-in-the-forest question might seem silly, it’s at the forefront of the minds of both the parents of young Casey Hathaway as well as those who searched for him during his recent three-day absence in the wilderness of North Carolina.

https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/28/us/casey-hathaway-bear-claims/index.html

Going missing in the great outdoors is nothing new, it’s been happening since the beginning of time and more often than not during our modern era if the unfortunate soul’s body is found, evidence suggests a perfectly reasonable explanation as to the cause. Sometimes it’s a mountain biker that’s veered off of the trail and fallen down into a secluded ravine, or a cross country skier who has fallen upside down into the void existing in the snow under the branches of an evergreen. While these horrific examples are disquieting, they at least make sense.

What makes zero sense is how Casey Hathaway, a three-year-old boy without sufficient all-weather gear spent three nights in the wilderness alone and did not succumb to exposure – nights where the temperature dropped to as low as twenty degrees Fahrenheit. Or was he alone after all?

Per Casey’s immediate account of the events upon rescue he was actually befriended and looked after by someone, someone who in this case would have to be the least expected… a bear.

This at first seems like the delusions or hallucinations of a child’s mind as it endures the highest stress levels it has ever known and one may at first theorize that this must be some sort of defense mechanism that gets set off once a kid is in a situation of extended absolute terror.

While that all may be possible to explain Casey’s account, what it does not explain is how Casey physically survived this event with rain and temperatures so unforgiving that at times searchers were themselves turned away due to the extreme weather conditions.

What propels this incident further into the unexplained is that it is not the first of its kind, in fact it sounds eerily familiar to several accounts noted in the “Missing 411 CanAm” project run by investigator David Paulides covering disappearances of people from remote areas of the US and Canada.

Paulides – a former police detective – has been working on this effort for years now and has compiled a library of information on an increasingly disturbing phenomenon occurring in our nation and around the world today and supposedly throughout history – the disappearances of people from remote forested areas, usually abutting to large tracts of wilderness.

Several of the accounts Paulides has accumulated over the years bear a strong resemblance to Casey’s story. Whilst the vast majority of these unfortunate children are actually never found (or scant remains were later found), the few who have survived have described some friendly animal or creature as having assisted them through their ordeal, sometimes a wolf-life animal, sometimes a bear, but always something non-human and furry. One account even had the child claiming the bear had fed him berries, berries that doctors later confirmed were in the child’s stomach.

Of course the quickest explanation is that the kid ate the berries on his own and that those wild berries themselves perhaps containing some weak chemical or hallucinogen helped spur on the imagination. Nothing can be definitively proved here except that these children somehow survived when the others unfortunately did not.

If we think hard enough and back far enough here, people going missing in this specific area of North Carolina itself isn’t even a new phenomenon by any means, and once we start looking at things from a different angle, disturbing they become indeed – and very quickly.

This area of North Carolina is just north of the Croatan National Forest, which contains four wilderness areas and is named after the Croatan Indians, an Algonquian Native American group who’d called these lands home since time immemorial.

That by itself seems cause for no immediate concern save for those of us who remember the Lost Colony of Roanoke. This was the English colony that after three years without contact, in 1590 upon the return of reinforcements with supplies….was found with no one and nothing except for the word of “CROATOAN” carved into a tree trunk. Nothing was ever found of the settlers of that colony and to this day it’s completely unknown as to what happened to them or why they would’ve deserted their camp leaving only this cryptic word referencing the local Indians.

Some say this means the Indians themselves must have removed the colonists from their fort. Others insist the Croatan Indians only assisted these settlers. One thing is for certain, it all remains a mystery, with the Croatan tribe as a common denominator.

This doesn’t only suggest open hostilities toward the Colony of Roanoke however, for it is the Native Americans themselves who have many stories of their own of sacred places where strange things are known to happen, or places one must not go for fear of never returning. In fact, perhaps a cross-referencing is needed between the modern disappearances of people and the locations of Native American accounts of supernatural phenomenon.

Perhaps someday we will get to the bottom of the mysteries surrounding the disappearances of people and children from remote wilderness areas, or the unknowns underlying the history of the Croatan Indians and the Lost Colony of Roanoke in this region of what is now North Carolina. In the meantime however, we can rest assured that at least young Casey Hathaway’s name was not added to the list of those of the Missing 411 who were never seen again. Instead, he will now grow up to be an adult who can ask these questions along with us and perhaps even later be a key to our understanding of whatever it was that happened to him all those years ago in his youth.

Welcome back Casey.

It was said that the colonists had agreed that if they’d left the camp, they would carve their destination into a tree, and if the departure was by force, it would be accompanied by a carved Maltese Cross. No symbol was left with the carved letters, however the search of a nearby island bearing the same name as the Indians yielded no results. It remains a complete mystery what happened to this colony of settlers.