Clues of our Human Ancestry
Fox Mulder

In yet another example of the sophistication exhibited by some prehistoric peoples, a stone bracelet discovered in the famed Denisovan cave in Siberia has yielded evidence that the artist who created it so many thousands of years ago used methods that weren’t thought to have existed at the time of its manufacture, and moreover, that may even rival modern techniques as well. How is it that certain ancient people were able to exhibit skill levels not seen again for tens of thousands of years? Why has the evolution of mankind not been linear, but instead has seen a myriad of ups and downs regarding apparent intelligence and technical achievements?

“…The ancient master was skilled in techniques previously considered not characteristic for the Paleolithic era, such as drilling with an implement, boring tool type rasp, grinding and polishing with a leather and skins of varying degrees of tanning…[sic]”

It’s well known that all humans alive today are labeled as Homo Sapiens, however what are ignored are some of the other prototypical hominins that also contributed to our makeup over the millennia.

Case in point, until very recently it was widely thought that Neanderthals were some sort of isolated and separate offshoot of hominin which had little to no relation to modern man. Today however – through fairly recently uncovered genetic evidence – it’s understood that Homo Sapiens not only interbred with Neanderthals at certain points in history, but that some modern human racial differences can most likely be directly attributed to that interbreeding. This is evidenced by the presence of traces of Neanderthal DNA in all humans outside of Africa while Africans posses none.

One does need to ask oneself, why do Caucasians, Africans, Asians, and other ethnicities differ so widely in appearance and behavior? While it IS true that nearly all life on earth is heavily related to all other life…what caused these observable and stark differences in our own species? The genetic history resulting from multiple out-of-Africa migrations is starting to shed light on potential answers to this question.

If judging by genetic proportions alone, humans are closely related to pigs…and also starfish even…the list goes on, and especially with mammals it cannot be denied. When was the last time you looked into your cat or dog’s eyes and didn’t see a glimpse of human emotion in that very-similar face of two eyes, a nose, and a mouth, with not widely diverging proportions as related to yourself?

It is no secret that all life on Earth is inter-related and traces back to having evolved from the same primordial sources. This doesn’t however remove the need for us to study and determine exactly who we are as people and how our human species evolved to be like it is. If anything, our close relation to all other terrestrial life begs the question “what makes us different”?

In order to truly understand ourselves and what separates us from other life on earth we must understand exactly how we evolved, all of the steps that forged that process, and therefore also know which of those steps resulted in the wide array of differences that exist among modern human races today.

Thanks to the modern study of DNA evidence combined with archaeological finds it is becoming clear that there was not a single migration out of Africa, but instead several, and also at least several different species of early human. Neanderthals have been known about for some time however we’ve only recently discovered the previous existence of other early hominins such as Denisovans, Homo Luzonensis, Homo Naledi, and Homo Floresiensis. Indeed our heritage is starting to become quite a bit more complex than was theorized by scientists even just one hundred years ago, and it’s almost certain that we will continue to find even more early human species as time goes on.

Given that we now know that there were at least several different early hominins – and more to come as scientists are now suggesting that Denisovans and Neanderthals both interbred with at least one other as yet unknown species of early human – this is starting to shed light on how modern humans can have such varying differences across our different ethnicities.

Modern humans today are basically the result of an extremely complex evolution of several different lineages that interbred at different points in history, to varying degrees, and also across a vast number of geographical locations, WITH each lineage evolving over the millennia as all of this transpired.

NOW it is starting to make sense just as to how and why different human races and cultures across the globe can look and act so wildly differently from each other. Regardless of the overall genetic similarities that exist across all terrestrial life, when one focuses on humans alone, the history of our race is very rich with different twists and turns over time that have resulted in the diverse species that we today call modern man.

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